Clinical and molecular characterization of a patient with interstitial 6q21q22.1 deletion
© Tassano et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 12 January 2015
Accepted: 27 February 2015
Published: 28 April 2015
Interstitial 6q deletions, involving the 6q15q25 chromosomal region, are rare events characterized by variable phenotypes and no clear karyotype/phenotype correlation has been determined yet.
We present a child with a 6q21q22.1 deletion, characterized by array-CGH, associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, skeletal, muscle, and brain anomalies.
In our patient, the 6q21q22.1 deleted region contains ten genes (TRAF3IP2, FYN, WISP3, TUBE1, LAMA4, MARCKS, HDAC2, HS3ST5, FRK, COL10A1) and two desert gene regions. We discuss here if these genes had some role in determining the phenotype of our patient in order to establish a possible karyotype/phenotype correlation.
KeywordsInterstitial deletion 6q21q22.1 Array-CGH Karyotype/phenotype correlation Poland syndrome
Interstitial deletions of the long arm of chromosome 6 are rare and are divided into proximal (6q11q16), medial (6q15q25), and terminal (6q25qter) based on conventional cytogenetics . Approximately, less than 30 patients with intermediate 6q interstitial deletions, studied by standard cytogenetics and array-CGH, have been reported [2-13].
The phenotype of patients with medial 6q deletion is generally associated with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), abnormal respiration, hypertelorism, and upper limb malformations . However, the patients described to date presented a large spectrum of clinical features, depending on the size of the deleted segment, the involved genes, and the genomic architecture of the region, making genotype–phenotype correlation difficult.
Here, we report on the phenotypic and molecular characterization of a new 6q21q22.1 deletion in a boy with developmental delay, intellectual disability, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, and skeletal, muscle, and brain anomalies. We compare the phenotype of our patient with that of previously reported patients and discuss the role of the deleted genes in order to establish a possible karyotype/phenotype correlation.
The patient, a 13-year-old boy, is the only child of non-consanguineous, healthy Paraguayan parents. The child was born at term by elective caesarean section after an uneventful pregnancy. Birth weight was 4060 g and no perinatal diseases were reported. Data on the patient’s history as a child are not available because he lived in Paraguay with his grandparents, however delay in psychomotor development was reported (he was able to sit without support at 8 months and to walk at 18 months). At 12 years, he moved to Italy to join his mother and at 13 years he was admitted to our hospital because of mild intellectual disability and dysmorphic features.
Cognitive impairment was revealed by psychometric evaluation (<5th centile at Raven’s Progressive Matrices P.M.38).
Array-CGH analysis performed on peripheral blood of the mother was normal.
We report on a 13-year-old boy presenting developmental delay, intellectual disability, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms, and skeletal, muscle, and brain anomalies. Array-CGH identified a 4.71 Mb interstitial deletion at 6q21q22.1 bands. Rosenfeld et al.  described 12 individuals with variable deletions within 6q15q22.33 and compared their clinical features to better define karyotype/phenotype correlations. They reported heterogeneous phenotypes, even among individuals with overlapping deletions. They speculated that phenotypic variability could be related to less penetrance, concomitant mutations in other genes, in non-coding regions, such as transcription factor binding sites, or in methylation patterns.
Searching for patients with similar chromosomal imbalances, we select the patient n.6 reported by Rosenfeld et al. (2012)  and, in the DECIPHER database (DECIPHER, https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/), another 2 patients (n.257884, n.2498) sharing part of the deleted region with ours.
Phenotype and molecular comparison
Case n.6 Rosenfeld et al. 2012
Decipher n. 257884
Decipher n. 2498
Deletions (UCSC hg.19)
Mother normal/father not available
−2 DS (14 kg)
−1 DS (104 cm)
−2 DS (48 cm)
Right hemiplegia with brisk reflexes and spasticity
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
Corpus callosum hypoplasia
Reduction in volume in the left hemi cranium with cystic cerebromalacia.
Thin corpus callosum
Other neurological features
Exotropia, bilateral myopia
Moderate cerebral visual impairment
Hypertelorism, wide and flat nose
Hypertelorism, wide nasal bridge, narrow nasal tip, long nose
Triangular face, retrognathism, low set ears, smooth philtrum
Hypertelorism, prominent simple ears
Long and slender fingers and toes
Pectus excavatum, chest asymmetry, thoracic scoliosis and vertebral rotation
Required reconstruction of right hip probably secondary to hemiplegia
Absence of the pectoralis major and minor muscles (Poland Syndrome)
TRAF3IP2, FYN, WISP3, TUBE1, LAMA4, MARCKS, HDAC2, HS3ST5, FRK, COL10A1
MARCKS, HDAC2, HS3ST5
MARCKS, HDAC2, HS3ST5
MARCKS, HDAC2, HS3ST5
We consider the deleted region (chr6:113,190,061-114,450,408) shared by our case, patient n.6 , and the two DECIPHER cases, n.257884 and n.2498 (Figure 2). It contains three genes: MARCKS, HDAC2, and HS3ST5. It is known that MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) encodes an actin cross-linking protein that plays a role in signal transduction pathways, postnatal survival, cellular migration and adhesion, as well as endo-, exo-, and phagocytosis, and neurosecretion. Moreover, MARCKS is expressed in brain and spinal cord from the early stages of development. It is required during embryogenesis, as revealed by several gene knock-out studies: mice heterozygous for MARCKS appear normal, but exhibit impaired spatial learning while mice lacking the entire MARCKS gene show severe abnormalities of the central nervous system, and all die around birth .
The HDAC2 (Histone deacetylase 2) gene encodes a transcription factor that enhances cognitive ability, corrects neurodegenerative impairment, and helps to re-establish long-term memory .
HS3ST5 gene encodes a protein that belongs to a group of heparansulfate 3-O-sulfotransferases highly expressed in fetal brain, followed by adult brain and spinal cord .
Since these three genes are involved in neural development, we could speculate that their deletion could cause neurological phenotypes like developmental delay, intellectual disability, and brain malformations, all observed in our patient and in the other three similar patients as shown in Table 1.
Moreover, in our patient, the genomic 6q21q22.1 deleted region contained another seven OMIM genes, including FYN, WISP3,and COL10A1. FYN is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Src family kinases. It proved to play important roles in neuronal functions, including myelination and oligodendrocyte formation, and in inflammatory processes . WISP3 encodes a member of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor, Cysteine-rich 61, nephroblastoma overexpressed) family of connective tissue growth factor, known to be mostly extracellular matrix-associated proteins, involved in regulation of cell migration and adhesion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in connective tissues. It is expressed in skeletal-derived cells, such as synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells, and it is involved in skeletal development and maintenance of cartilage integrity . COL10A1 encodes type X collagen specifically expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes. As a major component of the hypertrophic zone, type X collagen influences the deposition of other matrix molecules in this region, thereby providing a proper environment for haematopoiesis, mineralization, and modelling, that are essential for endochondral ossification. Mutations and abnormal expression of COL10A1 are closely linked to abnormal chondrocyte hypertrophy, which has been observed in multiple skeletal dysplasia and osteoarthritis . For these reasons, we could speculate that, in our patient, haploinsufficiency of FYN could have contributed to neurological anomalies, and WISP3 and COL10A1 to skeletal defects.
To date, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying PS are still unknown and the genetic origin of the disease is still a matter of debate. It has been hypothesized that PS defects could result from a vascular insult during early embryological stages, which implies that environmental factors could contribute to PS phenotype [22,23].
Interstitial 6q deletion can cause a variable phenotype depending on the size and location of the anomaly. Our paper may contribute to a better understanding of karyotype/phenotype correlation in cases with deletion in 6q21q22.1 and to determine the clinical implication of the genes present in the involved chromosomal region. Identification of additional individuals with overlapping interstitial deletion will help to better define this correlation.
Standard GTG banding was performed at a resolution of 400–550 bands on metaphase chromosomes from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient and his mother; the father refused any analysis. Molecular karyotyping was performed in the patient and his mother using Human Genome CGH Microarray Kit G3 180 (Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, USA) with ~13 Kb overall median probe spacing. Labelling and hybridization were performed following the protocols provided by the manufacturers. A graphical overview was obtained using Agilent Genomic Workbench Lite Edition Software 220.127.116.11.
Written informed consent was obtained from the patient’s parents for publication of this paper and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
We thank the patient’s mother for her kind participation and support. We are grateful to Marco Bertorello and CorradoTorello for their technical assistance. This work was supported by “Cinque per mille dell’IRPEF- Finanziamento della ricerca sanitaria” and “Finanziamento Ricerca Corrente, Ministero Salute (contributo per la ricerca intramurale).
- Hopkin RJ, Schorry E, Bofinger M, Milatovich A, Stern HJ, Jayne C, et al. New insights into the phenotypes of 6q deletions. Am J Med Genet. 1997;70:377–86.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bonaglia MC, Ciccone R, Gimelli G, Gimelli S, Marelli S, Verheij J, et al. Detailed phenotype-genotype study in five patients with chromosome 6q16 deletion: narrowing the critical region for Prader-Willi-like phenotype. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:1443–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Derwińska K, Bernaciak J, Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik B, Obersztyn E, Bocian E, Stankiewicz P. Autistic features with speech delay in a girl with an approximately 1.5-Mb deletion in 6q16.1, including GPR63 and FUT9. Clin Genet. 2009;75:199–202.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grati FR, Lalatta F, Turolla L, Cavallari U, Gentilin B, Rossella F, et al. Three cases with de novo 6q imbalance and variable prenatal phenotype. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;136:254–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hansson K, Szuhai K, Knijnenburg J, van Haeringen A, de Pater J. Interstitial deletion of 6q without phenotypic effect. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143:1354–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klein OD, Cotter PD, Moore MW, Zanko A, Gilats M, Epstein CJ, et al. Interstitial deletions of chromosome 6q: karyotype/phenotypecorrelation utilizing array CGH. Clin Genet. 2007;71:260–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Le Caignec C, Swillen A, Van Asche E, Fryns JP, Vermeesch JR. Interstitial 6q deletion: clinical and array CGH characterisation of a new patient. Eur J Med Genet. 2005;48:339–45.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rosenfeld JA, Amrom D, Andermann E, Andermann F, Veilleux M, Curry C, et al. Karyotype/phenotypecorrelation in interstitial 6q deletions: a report of 12 new cases. Neurogenetics. 2012;13:31–47.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Traylor RN, Fan Z, Hudson B, Rosenfeld JA, Shaffer LG, Torchia BS, et al. Microdeletion of 6q161 encompassing EPHA7 in a child with mild neurological abnormalities and dysmorphic features: case report. Mol Cytogenet. 2009;7:17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Woo KS, Kim JE, Kim KE, Kim MJ, Yoo JH, Ahn HS, et al. A de novo proximal 6q deletion confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization. Korean J Lab Med. 2010;30:84–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zherebtsov MM, Klein RT, Aviv H, Toruner GA, Hanna NN, Brooks SS. Further delineation of interstitial chromosome 6 deletion syndrome and review of the literature. Clin Dysmorphol. 2007;16:135–40.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hudson C, Schwanke C, Johnson JP, Elias AF, Phillips S, Schwalbe T, et al. Confirmation of 6q21-6q22.1 deletion in acro-cardio-facial syndrome and further delineation of this contiguous gene deletion syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164:2109–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Toschi B, Valetto A, Bertini V, Congregati C, Cantinotti M, Assanta N, et al. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome: A microdeletion syndrome? Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:1994–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cabili MN, Trapnell C, Goff L, Koziol M, Tazon-Vega B, Regev A, et al. Integrative annotation of human large intergenic noncoding RNAs reveals global properties and specific subclasses. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1915–27.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Trapnell C, Williams BA, Pertea G, Mortazavi A, Kwan G, van Baren MJ, et al. Transcript assembly and quantification by RNA-Seq reveals unannotated transcripts and isoform switching during cell differentiation. Nat Biotechnol. 2010;28:511–5.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Arbuzova A, Schmitz AA, Vergères G. Cross-talk unfolded: MARCKS proteins. Biochem J. 2002;362:1–12.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jawerka M, Colak D, Dimou L, Spiller C, Lagger S, Montgomery RL, et al. The specific role of histone deacetylase 2 in adult neurogenesis. Neuron Glia Biol. 2010;6:93–107.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mochizuki H, Yoshida K, Gotoh M, Sugioka S, Kikuchi N, Kwon YD, et al. Characterization of a heparansulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase-5, an enzyme synthesizing a tetrasulfated disaccharide. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:26780–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schenone S, Brullo C, Musumeci F, Biava M, Falchi F, Botta M. Fyn kinase in brain diseases and cancer: the search for inhibitors. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:2921–42.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Delague V, Chouery E, Corbani S, Ghanem I, Aamar S, Fischer J, et al. Molecular study of WISP3 in nine families originating from the Middle-East and presenting with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia: identification of two novel mutations, and description of a founder effect. Am J Med Genet A. 2005;138A:118–26.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gu J, Lu Y, Li F, Qiao L, Wang Q, Li N, et al. Identification and characterization of the novel Col10a1 regulatory mechanism during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Cell Death Dis. 2014;16:e1469.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bavinck JN, Weaver DD. Subclavian artery supply disruption sequence: hypothesis of a vascular etiology for Poland, Klippel-Feil, and Mobius anomalies. Am J Med Genet. 1986;23:903–18.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fraser FC, Ronen GM, O’Leary E. Pectoralis major defect and Poland sequence in second cousins: extension of the Poland sequence spectrum. Am J Med Genet. 1989;33:468–70.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.