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Role of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism in lead induced nephrotoxicity


Lead is an important environmental and occupational pollutant and it can cause nephrotoxicity even at low doses. Early detection of renal disease from occupational and environmental exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals is currently limited by the lack of sensitive or chemical specific tests. There are growing body of evidence that supports Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) as a specific marker for nephrotoxicity, specifically- ischemic renal injury. δ- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism is known as an important factor affecting workers susceptibility to lead toxicity, further role of ALAD-1-1 and ALAD2-2 genotype is not clear yet. Correlation among the blood lead level, ALAD genotype present, urinary KIM-1 level of workers can provide better understanding about lead intoxication pattern and the role of genetic factor in susceptibility towards lead intoxication among workers.


A total 200 biological samples (blood and urine) collected from workers working in lead-acid battery manufacturing unit, were analysed for blood lead levels, urinary KIM-1 and presence of ALAD genotype.


In the present study significant correlation between blood lead levels and kidney toxicity were found. In individuals having ALAD 1-1 genotype, blood lead levels were observed significantly higher.


Higher KIM-1 level in urine in lead exposed workers denotes that KIM-1 can be considered as early kidney injury for lead induced nephrotoxicity.

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Correspondence to Mugdha Tiwari.

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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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Tiwari, M., Bhagia, L., Shaikh, I. et al. Role of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALAD) gene polymorphism in lead induced nephrotoxicity. Mol Cytogenet 7 (Suppl 1), P50 (2014).

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  • Blood Lead Level
  • Aminolevulinic Acid
  • Acid Dehydratase
  • Lead Intoxication
  • Kidney Toxicity