Skip to main content
  • Speaker presentation
  • Open access
  • Published:

3D facial phenotyping

The recognition of facial dysmorphism remains an important skill for clinical geneticists to acquire despite the expanding use of next generation sequencing tools for the identification of gene mutations and related anomalies. Phenotype-genotype correlations, for example, still have an important role to play in diagnosis and prognosis. Facial morphology can now be quickly captured in 3D and analysed with the support of appropriate computer software. This talk will describe how: 3D images of affected individuals can be combined to delineate characteristic facial features of genetic and related conditions; static and dynamic visualisations can help a clinician to identify what is atypical in an individual child’s craniofacial development; quantitative analysis of face shape can assist with diagnosis and the study of phenotype-genotype correlations; links can be established between facial dysmorphism and neuro-cognitive disability arising from genetic anomaly and teratogen exposure.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter Hammond.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hammond, P. 3D facial phenotyping. Mol Cytogenet 7 (Suppl 1), I2 (2014).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: