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Table 1 Results of various FISH probes application with the comet assay

From: Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with the comet assay and micronucleus test in genetic toxicology

FISH probes What is detected Results and applications References
- Whole DNA damage and repair Genotoxicity testing or biomonitoring of genotoxic exposure and effect [115]
Gene-specific DNA damage and repair within the vicinity of the gene of interest Analysis of damage and repair of genes related with cancer (TP53, KRAS, APC, p53) [41, 46, 51, 5358].
   Analysis of damage of genes Ret, Ab1 and Trp53 as biomarker of X-radiation exposure in vivo [59]
   Spatial distribution of chromosome-specific DNA sequences [40]
Chromosome locus-specific (centromere-, telomere- and region-specific) DNA damage within the vicinity of the locus of interest Analysis of leukaemia-specific chromosome damage [61]
   Analysis of sensitivity of telomeres toward anticancer drugs [6365]
WCP DNA damage within the chromosome of interest Distribution of DNA damage in genome [44, 60]
   Genetic alterations in carcinogenesis of the upper aerodigestive tract [62]
Selected probes Different genomic regions Transcription-coupled DNA repair [48]
   Elucidation of comet formation [4446, 51, 52]