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Table 2 Examples of different types of causative factors of aneuploidy

From: Understanding aneuploidy in cancer through the lens of system inheritance, fuzzy inheritance and emergence of new genome systems

1. Gene mutations/epigenetic alterations [111,112,113]
  Mitotic checkpoint defects, e.g. BUB1, MAD1 and CENPE [114, 115]
  Microtubule attachment defects, e.g. aurora kinase B, Cydlin A,  
  Mitotic spindle and centrosome defects [116]
  Other CIN-related mutation, e.g. p53, ATM [117]
2. Stress- (physiological, pathological and pharmaceutical) related responses
  Defective mitotic figures (condensation defects) (DMF, sticky chromosomes) [50, 78, 106]
  Chromosome fragmentations (C-Frags) [115, 116]
  Genome chaos [5, 6, 37, 59, 67]
  Chromosomal cycle variations (replication, condensation, segregation, de-condensation) [104]
  Non-specific stress (triggers type II CIN) [50]
3. Genome system variability
  Fuzzy inheritance [4, 37, 59]
  Cellular adaptation [37, 95]
  Survival under high stress [56, 67]
  1. To illustrate the viewpoint that many genomic and environmental factors can contribute to aneuploidy, a few examples are presented, among a large number of publications. We focus more on the examples that feature a cytogenetic perspective, as these are currently less popular compared to gene mutation studies, despite their importance