Karyotype arrays of a normal female and of the near-diploid cervical carcinoma C-4II. The figure shows the two karyotype arrays and a table indicating that the total chromosome number of C-4II is 43±1, and is thus quasi-clonal. The table further shows the %-clonality of all C-4II chromosomes. Karyotype-arrays are three-dimensional tables, which list the chromosome numbers of a given karyotype on the x-axis, the copy numbers of each chromosome on the y-axis, and the number of karyotypes arrayed on the z-axis. In such arrays the chromosomes of karyotypes with identical (clonal) copy numbers form parallel lines. The karyotype array with the attached table shows that 85 to 100% of the copy numbers of the C-4II chromosomes are clonal, and thus form parallel lines in the array. The minority of non-clonal C-4II chromosomes included (1) intact chromosomes with near-clonal copy numbers mostly oscillating in narrow margins of ±1 of clonal values and (2) two cells per 20 with unique non-clonal marker chromosomes. The presence of non-clonal intact and marker chromosomes indicates ongoing karyotypic variation predicted by the speciation theory (Background, Figure 1). By contrast, the karyotype array of a normal female shows 100%-clonality.