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Table 2 Function of genes of significance localized in the regions 7p15.3- > pter and Xq21.1 found to be altered in microarray analysis.

From: De novo 7p partial trisomy characterized by subtelomeric FISH and whole-genome array in a girl with mental retardation

Cytoband Gene Function
7p15.3 NPY Encodes a neuropeptide, widely expressed in the brain and autonomic nervous system, which functions through G protein-coupled receptors to inhibit adenylate cyclase, activate mitogen-activated protein kinase, regulate intracellular calcium levels and activate potassium channels, thus have an effect on neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission.
7p21.1 FERD3L Its protein is expressed in the developing CNS and functions as a transcriptional inhibitor, thus a negative regulator of neurogenesis [47].
7p21.1-p21.2 TWIST1 Acts as a transcriptional regulator and is involved in membranous ossification occurring during frontal, parietal, and malar bone formation; triple dosage of this gene might be responsible the delayed closure of a large anterior fontanelle.
7p22.1 RADIL Downstream effector of Rap required for cell adhesion and migration of neural crest precursors during development
7p22.1 DAGLB Required for axonal growth during development and for retrograde synaptic signalling at mature synapses [48].
Xq21.1 P2RY10 P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors and their activation initiates a wide range of signaling cascades including PLCbeta, PLD, PLA2, AC and MAPK/MEK kinase. They have diverse physiological roles including regulation of platelet aggregation, muscle contraction, neurotransmission and epithelial cell communication and migration.
Xq21.1 BRWD3 Mutations in BRWD3 cause mental retardation X-linked type 93, which is also referred to as mental retardation X-linked with macrocephaly.