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Table 1 Various stresses that have been linked to chromosome pulverization/shattering

From: Comparison of mitotic cell death by chromosome fragmentation to premature chromosome condensation

Factors of pulverization/shattering Species Ref.
Shattering due to UV light and caffeine exposure Chinese Hamster [44]
Maintenance of diploid karyotype in PA-1 cells by removal of tetra ploid cells Human [62]
UV exposure Tradescantia paludosa [66]
Cells with herpes-like virus given doses of colcemid Human [67]
Exposed to various doses of tritiated thymidine Chinese Hamster [68]
Exposure of male mice to methyl methanesulfonate previous to fertilization of female mice. Shattering seen in filial cells Mouse [69]
Infection of lymphocytes with JM-V herpes-virus Chicken [70]
Treatment with fungicide N-trichloromethylthio-phthalimide Human [71]
Pulverization due to UV light and caffeine Chinese Hamster [72]
Exposure to alpha-amanitin Rat [73]
Doxorubicin treatment. Pulverization inhibited in drug resistant cells. Human [74]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection Human [75]
Hepatitis B infection. Pulverization occurs in both a hepatocellular cell line derived from a tumor and in peripheral lymphocytes from the patient. Human [76]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Endoreduplication was noted. Also HSV infection increased the mitotic index. Human [77]
Friend leukemia cells exposed to high levels of adriamycin. Mouse [78]
Following incubation of cells with heat labile DNA polymerase A in S phase at 39°C which were then cultured in a permissive temperature. Mouse [79]
Photo-irradiation of G2 or early prophase cells. CHO [80]
Hepatitis B integration and genomic instability Human [81]
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), sodium selenite and caffiene treatment of CHO cells Chinese Hamster [82]
Culture of a fibroblast line generated from a patient with xeroderma Human [83]
Associated with ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 activity Mouse [84]
Vaccination against hog cholera virus Pig [85]
Radiaton exposure in bone marrow. Treatment with WR-2721 and/or Ocimum sanctum extract reduced the amount of pulverization. Mouse [86]
2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estrogen Human [87]
Following vaccination of pigs for swine fever Pig [88]
Streptozotocin treatment Human [89]
Viral infection in pigs Pig [90]
Vitamin C treatment of lymphocytes Human [91]